Most SOAN classes require papers of varying length and scope. SOAN professors generally invite reference librarians to class to explain the resources in Gould Library, so we’ll let them provide more detailed explanations than we can give here.

For more research help, see the library’s Sociology and Anthropology resources online.

Most professionally written papers in sociology and anthropology use a streamlined way of referring to others’ work, based on the author-date system recommended by the Chicago Manual of Style: “Sources are cited in the text, usually in parentheses, by author’s last name and the date of publication. These short author-date citations are then amplified in a list of references, where full bibliographic information is given.” (University of Chicago Press 1993, 493)

In this method, footnotes or endnotes are used only for material that digresses from the text; they are never used to cite an author. In general, avoid endnotes. When used, they are for additional, parenthetical information which relates to a point in your paper, but is not a part of your thesis. These endnotes may be placed on a special sheet at the end of your paper, before the bibliography.

At the back of your paper should be a page titled “References,” listing the works you cited alphabetically by author and by date of publication. If you want to list works that you consulted but did not refer to, you should append a separate list called “Additional Works Consulted”.

The important point is consistency: stick to whatever patterns you choose.

Helpful Links

The ASA style guide can be found in the Library (HM73 .A547 2010).


Plagiarism is theft in the academic world, and we take it seriously. It amounts to taking the fruits of another person’s work without paying for them. You pay for what you use by making it known whose work you are drawing on for your facts and ideas.

This is important for two reasons: First, people should get credit for what they did. Second, you must be able to isolate your own work from that of others if teachers are to evaluate it fairly. Therefore, keep your reader aware of which ideas and facts are yours, and which come from the work of others. The most convenient way to do this is citations.

Review Carleton’s Academic Integrity Policy