1890 illustration of mars

Mars 1890
G. V. (Giovanni Virginio) Schiaparelli, 1835-1910.
Le Opere di G. V. Schiaparelli, pubblicate per cura della Reale specola de Brera.
(The Works of G. V. Schiaparelli, Published by the Royal Specola de Brera)
Volume II
Milano, U. Hoepli, 1929-

But the most surprising phenomenon pertaining to the canals of Mars is their germination…
– G. V. Schiaparelli

Schiaparelli noticed an intriguing phenomena occurring with the Martian canals: the canals often appeared to double, with a second canal appearing parallel to the first. Parallel canals “germinated” suddenly with no clear pattern to their appearance and disappearance.

Schiaparelli noted that the germinations were difficult to see, requiring a trained observer and a powerful telescope, theorizing that this is why the parallel canals were not spotted before 1882 and why many other astronomers failed to observe them.

On this 1890 map, Schiaparelli clearly delineates both the interconnectedness of the canal system and the doubling of canals through germination.