Trees, the stuff of forests. We all know what a tree is, but its definition is actually quite complicated and debated in both botanical and common language circles. Generally, the trees in the Cowling Arboretum upland forest are characterized by a singular woody trunk formed by secondary growth, dominating the landscape as the largest plant type around. Visit the Upland Tree Guide page for more detailed information about your favorite trees.

Shrubs are differentiated from trees based on size and usually have multiple stems growing from the root source. These plants take up more space on the ground and create a layer between the canopy and understory.

Like trees, Woody Vines are also difficult to define, with vines generally described as herbaceous plants. However, certain vines such as Bittersweet have more woody exterior qualities, making them a ‘woody vine.’

Have fun exploring the woody side of the Upland Forest!

Plants listed in alphabetical by genus and species. Common Names given in bold.


Example of leaf of Silver Maple
Example of leaf of Silver Maple

Acer ginnala; Siberian maple.
Acer negundo;Boxelder.
 ǂAcer platanoides; Norway maple.
Acer rubrum
; Red maple.
Acer saccharinum
; Silver maple. Leaf shown to right.
Acer saccharum
; Sugar maple.
Actaea rubra; Red baneberry.
˚Aesculus glabra
; Ohio buckeye.
Artemisia serrata; Toothed sage.

Betula alleghaniensis; Yellow birch.
Betula papyrifera
; Paper birch.

Calystegia sepium; Hedge bindweed.
Caragana arborescens; Siberian peashrub.
Celastrus scandens
; Bittersweet.
Cornus alternifolia
; Pagoda dogwood.
Cornus racemosa; Gray dogwood.

ǂEleutherococcus senticosus; Siberian ginseng.
˚Euonymus atropurpureus
; Burning bush.

˚Fraxinus nigra; Black ash.
Fraxinus pennsylvanica
; Green ash.

Example of leaf of Black Walnut
Example of leaf of Black Walnut

ǂ *Ginkgo biloba; Maidenhair tree.
Gleditsia traicanthos
; Honey locust.

Juglans cinerea; Butternut.
Juglans nigra; Black walnut. Leaf shown to Right.
˚Juniperus virginiana; Eastern red cedar.

Lonicera dioica; Wild honeysuckle.
Lonicera tatarica; Tartarian honeysuckle.

Malus ioensis; Prairie crab-apple.
Menispermum canadense;
Morus alba; White mulberry.

Ostrya virginiana; Hop hornbeam.

Example of leaf of Black Cherry
Example of leaf of Black Cherry

Parthenocissus quinquefolia; Virginia creeper.
Parthenocissus vitacea
; Woodbine.
Picea glauca
; White spruce.
Pinus banksiana
; Jack pine.
Pinus resinosa
; Red pine.
Pinus strobus; White pine.
Populus gradidentata; Big-tooth aspen.
Populus tremuloides
; Quaking aspen.
Prunus pensylvanica
; Pin-cherry.
Prunus serotine
; Black cherry. Leaf shown to Right.
Prunus virginiana; Chokecherry.
Ptelea trifoliate
; Hop-tree.

Quercus alba; White oak.
Quercus ellipsoidalis
; Northern pin-oak.
Quercus macrocarpa
; Bur oak.
Quercus rubra
; Northern red oak.

ǂRhamnus cathartica; Buckthorn.
Rhus glabra
; Smooth sumac.
Rhus typhina
; Staghorn sumac.
Ribes cynosbati
; Prickly gooseberry.
Ribes missouriense
; Missouri gooseberry.
Ribes odoratum
; Buffalo currant.
Robinia pseudoacacia; Black locust.
Rubus allegheniensis
; Common blackberry.
Rubus flagellaris
; Eastern dewberry.
Rubus idaeus
;American red raspberry.
Rubus occidentalis
; Black raspberry.

Example of leaf of American Elm
Example of leaf of American Elm

Sambucus nigra; Common elder.
Sicyos angulatus
; Bur cucumber.
Smilax tamnoides
; Catbrier.
Solanum dulcamara; Climbing nightshade.
Sorbaria sorbifolia; False spiraea.
Staphylea trifolia
; Bladdernut.
Symphoricarpos occidentalis
; Wolfberry.
Symphyotrichum oolentangiense
; Skyblue aster.

Tilia americana; American linden.
Toxicodendron rydbergii
; Poison ivy.

Ulmus americana; American elm. Leaf shown to right.
Ulmus pumila; Siberian elm.
Ulmus rubra
; Slippery elm.

ǂViburnum lantana; Wayfaring tree.
Viburnum lentago
; Nannyberry.
Viburnum opulus
;Highbush cranberry.
Vitis riparia
; River-bank grape.

Zanthoxylum americanum; Common prickly ash.