The following list of resources was used in writing Blue Ice and is an excellent source of information for the reader who seeks greater depth. Blue Glacier has been the subject of studies by groups from the University of Washington, California Institute of Technology, Ohio State University, United States Geological Survey and the National Park Service. The sources below are a compilation of the primary literature from this research and more general books on glaciology and the Olympic Mountains.

General Glacier Sources
Glacier Ice by Austin Post and Edward R. LaChapelle, University of Washington Press, Seattle, 1971 and 2000.
The ultimate illustrated guide; this book is valuable to readers of all levels and features gorgeous black and white aerial photographs of glaciers. Recently updated in 2000. This book was a major source of inspiration for the creation of Blue Ice.

Living Ice: Understanding Glaciers and Glaciation by Robert Sharp, Cambridge University Press, New York, 1988.
Authoritative and accessible, both glaciology and glacier geology is explained in depth. A good first source.

Exploring the Columbia Icefield by Richard Kucera, High Country Press, Canmore, 1981.
This pamphlet, sold at the visitor center to the Columbia Icefields in Jasper National Park, describes the various geologic processes seen in the park.

Glaciers by Peter Knight, Stanley Thormes Ltd., Cheltenham 1999.
This is the most recent and thorough book on glaciers in this list. A great amount of detail is included, often incorporating mathematics for the advanced reader.

Glacier Glossary by The National Snow and Ice Data Center Glacier and Sue Ferguson,
A good easy source for a quick definition of a glacier process. The site is also linked from the Blue Ice website.

Glacier Rice University,
A general introduction to various glacier and ice topics, this website focuses on Antarctica.

Blue Glacier Human History
Exploring the Olympic Mountains: Accounts of the Earliest Expeditions by Carsten Lien, The Mountaineers Books, Seattle, 2001.
A comprehensive compilation of journals and newspaper accounts written by and about the early white explorers of the Olympic Mountains.

Tales from the Hoh and Quileute
, by A.B. Reagan and L. V. W. Walters, Journal of American Folk-lore, 46 pp 297-346.
Albert Reagan collected the Hoh legend at the beginning of my book between 1905 and 1909 while working as a government agent for the Quileute and Hoh peoples. A number of other legends about the mountain are also in his collection.

Research and Journal Articles
A list of the published articles relating to Blue Glacier has been compiled by the Glaciology program at the University of Washington and can be found at
. The most general and accessible are listed below.

University of Washington Blue Glacier Project
This website provides statistics on Blue Glacier as well as mass balance data. The terminus change graph was adapted from this data.

Allen, C. R., W.B. Kamb, M.F. Meier and R.P. Sharp (1960). "Structure of the lower Blue Glacier, Washington." Journal of Geology 68(68): 601-625.
Detailed description of structural features and patterns in the lower glacier. Excellent aerial photographs and figures of foliation patterns.

Armstrong, R. (1989). "Mass balance history of Blue Glacier, Washington, U.S.A." Oerlemans Journal, Glacier Fluctuations and Climate Change: 183-192.
Good overview of the mass balance changes on Blue Glacier

Heusser, C. (1957). "Variation of Blue, Hoh and White Glaciers during recent centuries." Arctic 10(3): 139-150.
A great source of photos of terminus changes throughout the 1900s.

LaChapelle, E. (1960). The Blue Glacier Project 1959 and 1960. Seattle, Department of Meterology and Climatology, University of Washington.
Now a little outdated, this report chronicles the first two years of monitoring on Blue Glacier. The accumulation figure is adapted from data in this report.

Meier, M. (1974). "Flow of Blue Glacier, Olympic Mountains, Washington, U.S.A." Journnal of Glaciology 13(68): 187-212.
A mathematical analyses of flow patterns in the lower glacier. May be difficult for those unfamiliar.

Milius, S. (2000). "Red Snow, Green Snow." Science News 157(21): 328.
Short accessible description of snow algae.

Ramussen, L. A., H. Conway, P.S. Hayes (2000). "The accumulation regime of Blue Glacier, U.S.A. 1914-96." Journal of Glaciology 46(53): 326-334.
This paper attempts to reconstruct the climate on the glacier using precipitation data collected at sea level nearby.

Spicer, R. (1989). "Recent Variations of Blue Glacier, Olympic Mountains, Washington, U.S.A." Arctic and Alpine Research 21(1): 1-21.
Spicer covers the variations of Blue Glacier and the corresponding changes in climate. The article features some of the best aerial photos of the mountain and includes the history of the first explorations. It is both accessible and comprehensive.


intro | terminology | accumulation | firn | blue | ablation | water | equilibrium | massbalance | movement | crevasse | structure | algae | moraine | debris | erosion
pdf version | glacier glossary | bibliography | about blue ice

Benjamin Drummond 2002