The book and website, Blue Ice, was built in March 2002 in partial fulfillment of the requirements for a Bachelor of Arts degree from Carleton College, Northfield, Minnesota.

More information about Benjamin Drummond, including an online portfolio, can be found at
The author can be contacted at

Special thanks to Gay Hunter of Olympic National Park for providing the aerial photograph in Terminology. I am grateful for the help of Joel Reid who scrambled around Olympus with me and took the photographs in the Introduction. Thanks to Tom Drummond for shooting video, tromping 40 miles in plastic boots, and providing fatherly support. Thanks also go to Heather Borkowski for proofing the manuscript and providing four years of geologic sanity. I am grateful to the Carleton Geology Department for funding the photography and Mary Savina, my advisor, for providing free-rein and positive feed back. And finally, a special thanks to Sara Steele for her unwavering support, keen red pen, and bravery on ice.



intro | terminology | accumulation | firn | blue | ablation | water | equilibrium | massbalance | movement | crevasse | structure | algae | moraine | debris | erosion
pdf version | glacier glossary | bibliography | about blue ice

Benjamin Drummond 2002